Scientists working hard to find the secrets of the Big Bang Theory. How Dark Energy & Dark Matter was made? What is the way to identify it? The answer is still unknown
About 1.37 billion years ago, all the mass of the universe was concentrated at one point. This centralized state is called ‘singularity‘. The point exploded and all the mass spread out in this universe. This explosion is called the Big Bang. After that this spread continued, the universe continued to expand. This expansion was first detected in 1929 by the Hubble Telescope, developed by the American astronomer Edwin Hubble.
It one of the most amazing discoveries of the twentieth century. That all the visible inanimate objects we see around us, including plants, rivers, mountains, planets, satellites, galaxies, are only 5% of the total mass of this universe. The remaining 95 percent is a completely invisible, unknown, mysterious dark world. The total mass of this universe is much larger than the visible mass. The unknown is much more than the known. Of this 95%, 60% is dark energy and 25% is dark matter.
Now the question is, how do I verify this 95% secret mass?
Scientists have verified 95 percent of the hidden mass in the gravitational field.
Dark matter is the kind of substance that we don’t know about. What its source is and what it is made of is completely unknown. It does not absorb light, nor does it reflect, refract or scatter light. As a result, it cannot be shown. Scientists say that dark matter is scattered all over the universe.
why Dark Energy & Dark matter is not seen? There are 3 main reasons for this:
- They are invisible
- Cannot be detected by any instrument or detector,
- Do not interact with any other substance.
The modern era of dark matter research began in 1970. When scientists measure the mass of different galaxies, they noticed some inconsistencies. American astronomer Vera Rubin (1926-2016) measured the rotational velocity of various galaxies with the most advanced spectrograph of the time.
American astronomer Vera Rubin
She notices that Newton’s law of gravitation does not work, or that a large part of the total mass of the galaxy was hidden. Since then, the concept of dark matter has been gaining popularity among scientists. Her biography, Vera Rubin: A Life, has just been published.
What Dark Matter is made of, though not yet confirmed, it can be said with certainty that our known electrons, protons, neutrons are not made of particles. Dark matter is made up of something that scientists have not yet discovered. Science is still trying to find the answer. Quantum physics refers to a type of atomic particle called the axon, which has some similarities with the properties of dark matter. Maybe made of Dark Matter Axion, maybe not.
According to a hypothesis, dark matter is made up of wimps (weekly interacting massive particles), which are characterized by the fact that it interacts with matter so weakly that even if a large mass of dark matter penetrates our body, we will not notice it. Sterile or inanimate neutrino particles, which react very weakly with inert matter only by gravitational force, are potential particles of dark matter formation. Because they do not respond to any force other than the force of gravity, they are called inanimate.
In 1998, scientists observed a special type of supernova and noticed a strange thing. They saw that the supernova was not only moving away from the Earth, but The speed of moving away is increasing with time. That is the acceleration of the universe. It’s almost unbelievable.
There must be some source of energy needed to increase this speed. If so, what is the source of energy needed to accelerate the expansion of the universe? Finding the answer to this question gave birth to the idea of Dark Energy.
What is Dark Matter & Dark Energy and How to Create it?
It is not yet clear what kind of energy Dark Energy is. However, several theories have been put forward. They are:
1) Dark energy is a feature of space, which pushes two objects away and creates more space between them, just the opposite of the gravitational force. As the universe expands, the more space there is, the more dark energy there is, and the more energy the galaxies are pushing each other away. As a result, the speed of expansion is increasing.
2) In space, a kind of particle is constantly created from zero like a bubble, and then merges like a bubble. Dark energy is created from this mysterious particle.
How do we understand that Dark Matter & Dark Energy Exist?
Can’t be seen, can’t be touched, but how do I understand that there is that object? The existence of dark matter can be understood only from the effect of the gravitational force of Albert Einstein. According to Einstein’s theory of gravitation, gravity is a game of four-dimensional space-time geometry. Scientists have discovered the existence of dark matter from the gravitational process.
Large underground xenon (Lux) detectors have been installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the United States to study wimps and dark matter, with a special stone chamber at a depth of 1,500 meters. Radioactive rays cannot come out of here. 310 kg of xenon is kept in very cool condition in a tank with an electric field at the bottom.
Scientists believe that when a wimp collides with a xenon atom, it will emit a flash of light, which will be easily detected by a powerful light detector placed in the Lux. Although the first experimental work started in 2013, so far no significant success has been found from this experiment.
We will not Give UP
In the history of human civilization, the unknown has never been an obstacle in the way of discovery. Rather, knowing the unknown, the curiosity to know the unknown has encouraged scientists even more. That is why civilization has come to this place today. Science has been playing an important role in the development of this civilization.
In order to reach the goal, you may still have to cross many unknown paths, invent many experimental types of equipment, and gather much more necessary information.
In this way man, through his intellect and efforts, will one day bring to light things like dark matter and dark energy. Science will become an adult from adolescence! The last day will be very smooth and beautiful